Causes, Symptoms, And Available Treatments Or Kidney Stones

Why do kidney stones form?

To produce urine (pee), your Kidney Stones typically filter waste from your blood. Crystals start to form in your kidneys when there is too much waste in your blood and not enough urine is being produced by your body. A kidney stone forms when these crystals bind to other chemicals and waste products to form a solid substance that will only enlarge if it is not removed from the body by urination.

What are the origins of kidney stones and their risk factors?

Kidney stones can occur in everyone, however some people are predisposed to them more than others. White non-Hispanics experience kidney stones more frequently than those of other races. Additionally, if you have high levels of cystine, oxalate, uric acid, or calcium in your urine (pee), you may be more susceptible to developing kidney stones. had experienced kidney stones

  • If you meet the following criteria:
  • Have polycystic kidney disease;
  • Do not drink enough water;
  • Have a medical condition that results in swelling or damage to your joints or digestive system;
  • Take certain medications, such as diuretics (water pills) or calcium-based antacids

What signs indicate kidney stones?

If you have a little kidney stone, it may pass via your urine and leave your body (this is referred to as passing a kidney stone). You could not even be aware that you had a kidney stone because you might not have any symptoms.

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A larger kidney stone may become lodged in your urinary tract and prevent urine flow if you have one. You might experience signs like:

  • discomfort when urinating (peeing)
  • Your urine (pee) contains blood
  • Your back or lower tummy may hurt suddenly.
  • abdominal pain that won’t go away
  • you’re feeling queasy or you’re vomiting up
  • A fever and chills
  • Pee that has a foul odour or a hazy appearance

When you pass a kidney stone or if a sizable kidney stone obstructs the flow of your urine, you might experience significant pain.

Contact your doctor if you experience any of these signs.

What therapies are available for kidney stones?

A kidney stone’s course of treatment is determined by:

  • The type of stone;
  • The size of the stone;
  • Whether the stone is hurting you;

In order to help the kidney stone pass through your urinary tract and out through your urine (pee), your doctor might prescribe pain medication and water if the stone is small.

A different approach may be required if your kidney stone is huge or if it is obstructing your urinary tract. Options for treatment include:


The kidney stone is broken up into small fragments during the lithotripsy procedure using shock waves. The kidney stone’s microscopic bits will eventually travel through your urinary tract and out through your urine after therapy. This technique may be performed under general anaesthesia so that you won’t feel anything during the hour-long average treatment time.


In a procedure known as a ureteroscopy, a physician inserts a long, tube-like instrument into your ureter to remove small stones or break larger ones into smaller pieces so they can travel through your urinary tract and out through your urine.

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Surgery may occasionally be required to remove a kidney stone. To remove the stone, a surgeon will put a tube into your kidney during the procedure. To recover from this treatment, you will need to stay in the hospital for two to three days.

How may kidney stones be avoided?

To avoid kidney stones, follow these recommendations:

Consume adequate liquids daily. For most people, eight to twelve cups of liquid each day is plenty. Ask your doctor how much fluid you should drink each day if you need to limit your fluid intake due to kidney disease.

Limit your intake of animal proteins like meat and eggs as well as sodium (salt). Your doctor might recommend a specific eating regimen to help prevent kidney stones in the future if they can determine what your kidney stone is comprised of.

Take all of your prescribed medications as directed by your doctor to manage any health issues that could increase your risk of developing kidney stones.

Never begin or end a new medication or dietary regimen without first consulting your doctor.

What symptoms might a kidney stone look like?

Your doctor may order tests to determine the size and type of kidney stone you have, including:

Blood tests to determine whether you have an excessive amount of calcium or uric acid

Testing your urine (pee) will reveal the types of wastes that are present. Your doctor might ask you to collect urine over the course of two days for this test.

X-rays, CT scans, and ultrasounds are imaging techniques that can detect kidney stones in your urinary tract.

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Your doctor might advise you to urinate through a strainer to catch any stones you pass if you frequently acquire kidney stones. Your physician will next determine what materials they are constructed of.

What kinds of kidney stones are there?

Calcium crystals

They develop when calcium in your urine reacts with oxalate, a natural substance present in the majority of foods.

Uric rocks

Another typical category of kidney stones is uric stones. Purine is a naturally occurring molecule found in some meats and shellfish that can induce excessive amounts of urate in the body, which can lead to kidney stones. Kidney stones of this type frequently run in families.

stone struvite

More rarely than calcium and uric stones are struvite stones. When bacteria from upper urinary tract infections (UTIs) enter your urinary tract, struvite stones may develop.

stone cysts

Cystine stones are brought on by the uncommon, hereditary disorder known as cystinuria. A naturally occurring substance called cystine leaks into your urine as a result of cystinuria. Kidney stones can develop when your urine contains an excessive amount of cystine. These stones can lodge anywhere in your urinary tract, including your kidneys, bladder, and ureters. Most cystinurics develop a lot of stones over their lives. It is a chronic disorder that can only be managed; it cannot be cured.

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